Gardening: How to encourage the bee population in your own garden
- Credit: Archant
Scientists have warned that British bees are in serious decline with 71 of our wild bee species under threat and more than 20 already extinct. Loss of habitat and forage are the main problems facing wild bees.
Gardeners can do more to encourage a “flower-rich habitat” to provide more homes for wild honey bees, bumblebees, butterflies and other pollinators. Loss of habitat and forage are the main problems facing wild bees.
There’s lots we can do to help these valuable creatures flourish in our gardens, including growing more flowers, shrubs and trees that provide nectar and pollen as bee food.
People should understand that the beauty of a flower has nothing to do with its nectar content. Modern plant breeding has tended to value showy flowers more highly than the welfare of the insect world, so the latest double begonia or frilly carnation probably won’t attract pollinators.
Double flower varieties have extra petals but produce less pollen and nectar. For example, a study comparing four varieties of dahlia found that the double ‘pompom’ and ‘semi-cactus’ varieties were less attractive than open-flowered varieties.
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Many good nectar plants have inconspicuous flowers and often old-fashioned ones are the best, but that doesn’t mean they have to be boring. Foxgloves, hellebores, wallflowers, red valerian, ice plant and Verbena bonariensis all produce loads of nectar, as do many winter-flowering heathers.
It’s also important to provide good nectar sources for as much of the year as you can.
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Social species like bumble bees need food for the queen bees in spring when they are founding the nest, throughout the summer for the workers to rear the young, and finally at the end of the season for the young queens to build up fat stores before hibernating for the winter.
Late-flowering, nectar-rich plants include dahlia, fuchsia (single varieties), Michaelmas daisies, marigolds, lavender and knapweeds. Ivy is a good autumn source of nectar for a range of species including honey bees, ivy bees and hoverflies, and is the larval food plant of the holly blue butterfly.
Herbs including chives, borage, hyssop, rosemary, sage, thyme and fennel are also rich in nectar, while less common perennials including Calamintha nepeta, Veronica and Liatris spicata will also attract bees and other pollinators.
Don’t forget moths, which tend to be night-feeding – so include fragrant honeysuckle, jasmine, evening primrose and night-scented stock in your planting scheme.
And if you are still bulb-planting now, remember that wood anemones, scilla, chionodoxa and dwarf daffodils are all ideal for growing in grass, providing nectar for emerging bees in spring.